Mahmud Kusuma, S.H., M.H.
(Certified Attorneys at Law)
Previously, the Hukumindo.com platform has talk about "Who Has the Authority to Report a Crime If the Victim Is a Company?", "The Example of Official Police Report Receipt in Indonesia", read also "How to Open a Police Report in Indonesia?". And on this valuable occasion will be discussed about 'What's The Difference Between Police Report And Public Complaint?'.
For information only, the platform Hukumindo.com has received many e-mails from abroad regarding alleged criminal acts experienced by readers, mostly regarding online scams or fraud. Many of them asked for help to take legal action in the form of opening a Police Report to the relevant Police station. However, many readers do not really understand about this Police Report, and indirectly interpret it as a "public complaint". On this occasion we will explain the difference between the two, especially from a legal perspective.
Police Report According To Criminal Procedure Code ("KUHAP")
As previously discussed in the article entitled: "How to Open a Police Report in Indonesia?", what is meant by a Police Report (Police Report aka "LP"). Article 1 Law Number: 8 of 1981 concerning Criminal Procedure Code ("KUHAP") provides a definition of the Report as follows: "Report is a notification submitted by a person who, because of his rights or obligations under the law, to an authorized official regarding, has or is currently or is suspected of having a criminal event." Those who have the right to submit reports are people who have experienced, seen, witnessed or become victims of events that constitute criminal acts, either orally or in writing.
In relation to this article, then your position as a foreigner who is in Indonesia is as a victim of a crime committed by someone else against you. Procedural law (Law Number: 8 of 1981 concerning Criminal Procedure Code ("KUHAP")) in Indonesia protects you by providing you with the right to report a crime you have experienced to the relevant Police institution.
How to Open a Police Report ("LP") in Indonesia? As a guide, here's how to open a criminal report according to the author's practical experience:
- Come to the relevant Police Station;
- Come to the Integrated Police Service Center (SPKT);
- Tell the chronology of the crime that you experienced to the Police officers;
- If the incident you experience is a criminal act, the Police officer will give you a report sign, if it is not a criminal act, the Police officer will not give you a report sign.
Complete your report with your self identity, witnesses and supporting evidence related to the crime you experienced. Thus, it must be understood that the Police Report here is a legal action as regulated in the Criminal Procedure Code. As a legal action regulated in the Criminal Procedure Code ("KUHAP"), it is official and has legal consequences to the Police regarding Criminal Procedure Code.
Within the scope of government, 'public complaints' are: "Reports from the public regarding indications of...". Thus, public complaints are a kind of report regarding allegations that occur in the community. But of course, public complaints are not classified as Police Reports. Public complaints are not regulated in the Criminal Procedure Code ("KUHAP").
As an example is the page of the "Cyber Patrol" launched by the Directorate of Cyber-crime, Bareskrim Polri. On the page it is written:
Apa itu “Laporkan!” ?
Laporkan! adalah portal laporan daring yang dibuat oleh Dittipidsiber Bareskrim Polri untuk mengumpulkan berbagai informasi tentang kejahatan siber.
(What is “Report!” ?
Report! is an online reporting portal created by the Dittipidsiber Bareskrim Polri to collect various information about cyber crimes.)
Siapa yang boleh membuat laporan?
Siapa saja yang mengetahui tentang adanya indikasi kejahatan siber.
(Who can make reports?
Anyone who knows about any indications of cyber crime.)
Apa fungsi dari portal “Laporkan!” ?
Portal ini dibuat untuk mengumpulkan informasi tentang pelaku kejahatan siber, seperti nama, nomor telepon, nomor rekening, akun media sosial, e-mail dan lain sebagainya. Informasi tersebut juga dapat diakses oleh pengunjung laman patrolisiber.id fitur “cari” sebelum bertransaksi atau berkomunikasi dengan orang yang mencurigakan.
(What is the function of the “Report!” ?
This portal was created to collect information about cyber-criminals, such as names, phone numbers, account numbers, social media accounts, e-mails and so on. This information can also be accessed by visitors to the patrolsiber.id page with the "search" feature before making transactions or communicating with suspicious people.)
Mengapa kita harus melapor?
Semakin banyak informasi yang kami terima, maka akan semakin banyak informasi yang dapat diakses pengunjung patrolisiber.id. Harapan kami, informasi itu dapat digunakan agar kita terhindar dari kejahatan siber.
(Why should we report?
The more information we receive, the more information that can be accessed by patrolisiber.id visitors. We hope that this information can be used to prevent cyber-crime.)
Apakah laporan yang dibuat melalui portal “Laporkan!” akan otomatis menjadi laporan polisi?
(Is the report made through the portal “Report!” will automatically become a Police Report?
Apa bedanya laporan melalui platform ‘Laporkan!” dengan laporan polisi?
Laporan yang disampaikan melalui portal “Laporkan!” hanya berisi sebagian kecil dari informasi tentang kejahatan siber.
(How is it different to report via the 'Report!” platform with a Police Report?
Reports submitted through the portal “Report!” contains only a small part of the information about cyber-crime.)
The page above clearly explains that the information obtained through "Laporkan!/Report!" is not a Police Report, it is only a platform to collect information regarding indications of criminal acts occurring in society through cyber-space.
Several conclusions can be drawn here, that there are fundamental differences between Public Complaints and Police Reports:
- Police reports are regulated in the Criminal Procedure Code, while Public Complaints are not;
- Public complaints are information that comes from the public to related state institutions with certain indications;
- Public complaints are not Police Reports.
If you are abroad and the unfortunate fate befalls you because you are a victim of a crime whose criminals are in the jurisdiction of Indonesia, then the legal action you have to take is to make a Police Report, not a 'public complaint'. If you want to file a complaint to the state institution in Indonesia, you don't need to hire an advocate. You can do it by yourself. The author suggests, hire an advocate in Indonesia to open the Police Report in relevant Police station, and of course it will incur costs, and this is totally reasonable. You must also read: "The Example of Official Police Report Receipt in Indonesia", and if you have any difficulties to open a Police Report in Indonesia, contact us, feel free in 24 hours, we will be glad to help you.
*) For further information please contact:
Mahmud Kusuma Advocate
Tokopedia Care Tower, 17th Floor, Unit 2&5,
Outer West Ring Road, 101, Rawa Buaya,
Cengkareng Subdistrict, West Jakarta,
Jakarta - Indonesia.
1. "How to Open a Police Report in Indonesia?", www.hukumindo.com., Diakses pada tanggal 15 Januari 2022, https://www.hukumindo.com/2021/10/how-to-open-police-report-in-indonesia.html
4. "Pengaduan Masyarakat", inspektorat.tegalkab.go.id., Diakses pada tanggal 15 Januari 2022, https://inspektorat.tegalkab.go.id/pengaduan-masyarakat/
5. "LAPORKAN!", patrolisiber.id., Diakses pada tanggal 15 Januari 2022, https://patrolisiber.id/report/my-account