Rabu, 11 Mei 2022

Elements of the Fraud According to Indonesia Criminal Law

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By:
Team of Hukumindo

Previously, the www.hukumindo.com platform has talk about "Contoh Surat Tuntutan Pidana Penipuan", "Dugaan  Penipuan Pengguna Identitas Palsu Pemilik Mobil Mewah Guna Menghindari Pajak Kendaraan Bermotor Progresif", you may read also "Subjek Dan Rumusan Delik", "Beware of Scams Impersonating Love", "How to Open a Police Report in Indonesia?" and on this occasion we will discuss about 'Elements of the Fraud According to Indonesia Criminal Law'. Let's check it out.

Definition of Fraud 

According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), fraud is:[1]
"pe.ni.pu.an [n] proses, cara, perbuatan menipu; perkara menipu (mengecoh): berbagai-bagai cerita tt ~ telah dilaporkan kpd polisi."

In other words, according to writer understanding, fraud is process, ways, or act of tricking someone else, or to deceive someone else. It is clear that this fraudulent act is an act that is against the law, in this case especially according to the criminal law of Indonesia.

Fraud According To Article 378 Criminal Code (KUHP)

The Criminal Code is the governing law that regulates general criminal acts in Indonesia such as fraud. The Criminal Code is regulated in Law Number: 1 of 1946 concerning Criminal Law Regulations. As stipulated in Article 378 of the Criminal Code, the following is what is meant by fraud:[2] 
"Barangsiapa dengan maksud untuk menguntungkan diri sendiri atau orang lain dengan melawan hukum, dengan memakai nama palsu atau martabat palsu, dengan tipu muslihat atau pun dengan rangkaian kebohongan menggerakan orang lain untuk menyerahkan sesuatu benda kepadanya, atau supaya memberi hutang maupun menghapuskan piutang, diancam karena penipuan dengan pidana penjara paling larna 4 (empat) tahun".

If we translated into English, it can be interpreted as follows: 
"Whoever with the intent to benefit himself or others unlawfully, by using a false name or false dignity, by deceit or by a series of lies induces another person to hand over something to him, or to give a debt or write off a debt, is charged with fraud. with a maximum imprisonment of 4 (four) years".
As a common in criminal law, the content of article 378 of the Criminal Code above contains elements. These elements will be examined as the title of this article.

Elements of the Article 378 of the Criminal Code Concerning Fraud

Regarding fraud offenses, the Criminal Code regulates it extensively and in detail in Book II Chapter XXV from Articles 378 to Article 395 of the Criminal Code. However, the provisions regarding the offense of fraud (the main crime) are contained in Article 378 of the Criminal Code. Based on Article 378 of the Criminal Code above, juridically, a fraud offense must meet the main elements in the form of:[3]

1. The subjective element of the offense is in the form of the perpetrator's intention to deceive others which is formulated in the article of the law with the words: "with the intention of unlawfully benefiting someone else or another person"; and
2. The objective element of the offense which consists of:
  • Whose element; The element of moving other people so that the other person submits an object / gives debt / writes off receivables; and
  • The element of how to move other people is by using a false name / dignity or false nature / trickery / series of lies.
Thus, to be able to declare a person as a fraud perpetrator, the Panel of Judges of the Court must conduct an examination and prove legally and convincingly whether it is true that the person and the person's actions have proven elements of the crime of fraud, both subjective and objective elements. This means that, in the context of substantiating subjective elements, for example, because the theoretical definition of intentional fraud (opzet) includes the meaning of willen en witens (wanting and or knowing), it must be proven that the defendant has indeed:
  • Intends to benefit oneself or others unlawfully. "desire" or at least "knows / realizes" that his actions from the beginning were intended to move other people so that the other person surrenders an object / gives debts / writes off debts to him (the perpetrator of the offense).
  • "knowing / realizing" that what he uses to move other people, so that he surrenders an object / gives a debt / writes off a debt to him is by using a false name, false dignity or false nature, deceit or a series of lies.
And if you have any legal issue with this topic in Indonesia territory, contact us then, feel free in 24 hour, we will be proud to assist you. 


*) For further information please contact:
Mahmud Kusuma Advocate
Law Office
Jakarta - Indonesia.
E-mail: mahmudkusuma22@gmail.com

________________
References:

1. "Arti Kata Penipuan Adalah", pajak.ceklengkap.com., Diakses pada tanggal 3 Mei 2022, https://pajak.ceklengkap.com/artikel/arti-kata-penipuan-adalah/
2.  Article 378 of the Criminal Code.
3. "Unsur – Unsur Dalam Tindak Pidana Penipuan", jp-arsyad.com., Diakses pada tanggal 3 Mei 2022, https://jp-arsyad.com/unsur-unsur-dalam-tindak-pidana-penipuan/

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